SPAN OF CONTROL
In Commerce and Business Management, Span of control or span of management is a term that’s used to refer to the area of activity or number of functions for which an individual or an organisation is responsible.
Span of control can also mean the number of personnel or subordinates a manager can manage or control effectively and the number of staffs working with him. For the purpose of effective control, the number of subordinates under a manager should be restricted to what his mental ability can handle.
Factors Determining Span Of Control
- The nature of the work. Complex jobs require more supervision and less number of subordinates while routine work requires more subordinate and less supervision.
- The size of the organization
- The level of technological development
- The demands on the managers time in other jobs.
- Frequency of interpersonal relationship between a manager and the subordinates.
- Experience, skills exposure and educational background of subordinates
- The personality of the managers
- The qualification, training and experience of the manager
- The quality and level of communication.
INTERDEPARTMENTAL AND INTRA-DEPARTMENTAL COMMUNICATION
Communication is the transmission of understandable information, opinions or ideas from one person (sender) to another person (receiver). Communication plays an important role in every organization.
Inter-departmental communication: This is the means of sending and receiving information from one department to another in the same organisation. It is the transmission of information between organisational members or parts of the organisation. It takes place across all levels and organisational units of an organisation.
The means of communication in inter-departmental organisations are: circular, telephone (inter communication), staff location system, computer terminals, etc.
Intra-departmental communication: This is a means of sending and receiving information within the same department in an organisation.
The means of communication available in intra-departmental communication are: Direct face-to-face, notice board, circulars, intercom etc.
Factors To Be Considered In Choosing A Communication System
- The speed of transmission
- Cost of installation, running and maintenance
- Distance between the departments or office
- The type of information that is to be communicated.