PILLARS OF DEMOCRACY
There are four major pillars of democracy. They are:
The essence of these pillars is to ensure the rights and freedoms of all citizens.THE
A Constitution can be defined as a book or document that contains the rules and principles by which a state is governed. Constitution a body of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is acknowledged to be governed.
The constitution of a country dictates how power is shared among the arms of Government and the rights and duties of citizens in the country.
Sources of Constitution
the main sources of Nigerian Constitution include the following:
- History of the people: This involves past event or activities of the people in the country. The history of the people is a vital consideration in the preparation of the constitution.
- Decrees: These are the laws made by the federal military Government; the laws have formed part of the constitution in Nigeria.
- Convention: These are the established ways of doing things.
- Custom of the people: These are the belief, values and norms of the people. The people’s custom needs to be considered in the constitution.
- Acts of parliament: these are laws made by the national Assembly which affect the constitution.
Features of Constitution
- The preamble
- Right of citizens
- Political institution
- The party system
- The procedure for amendment
- The tenure of office of Government
Functions of a Constitution
- The constitution protects the right of the minority
- The constitution defines the right and power of Government
- It sets the limit of power of use of powers of Government
- It protects the right of the minority
- It helps to share power among the arms of Government
- It spells out the right and duties of citizens
Arms of Government
Also known as the organ of government, there are three arms of government in Nigeria:
- THE EXECUTIVE: In Nigeria the each level of Government (federal, state and local Government) has its own executive. The federal executive is headed by the president of the country, the state executive is headed by the state Governor while the local government is headed by the local government chairman
Functions of the Executive
- Responsible for policy formulation
- Responsible for implementation
- Responsible for budget preparation
- Appoints government functionaries
- Maintains of law and order
- Asserts bills
- Responsible for protecting the country against external forces
2. THE LEGISLATURE : The legislature is a decision making body that's responsible for making laws.
Functions of the legislature
- Responsible for making law
- Responsible for approving the budget made by the executive
- Investigates any governmental official
- Responsible for making and amending constitution
- Can impeach the executives
- Checks and controls the activities of the executives.
Types of legislature
- Unicameral legislature.
- Bicameral legislature.
What is Unicameral Legislature?
Unicameral legislature is a situation whereby there is only one legislative house that makes law. Israel and Bulgaria are examples of counties that practice unicameral legislature.
What is Bicameral legislature
Bicameral legislature is a situation whereby there are two legislative houses. Nigeria practices bicameral legislature which comprises the house of senate (upper house) and house of representatives (lower house). The two houses are called national assembly.
3. THE JUDICIARY :This arm of Government is responsible for the interpretation of laws and application of the laws when they are disobeyed.
Functions of the Judiciary
- Interprets of law
- Punishes offenders
- Prevents violation of law
- Punishes law breakers
- Protects the constitution
- Settles disputes
- Determines election petition.
PILLARS OF DEMOCRACY
The following are the major pillars of democracy:
• Sovereignty of the people
• Government based upon consent of the governed
• Majority rules
• Minority rights
• Guarantee of basic human rights
• Free and fair elections
• Equality before the law
• Due process of law
• Constitutional limits on government
• Social, economic, and political pluralism
• Values of tolerance pragmatism