FEDERALISM IN NIGERIA
Federalism is a system of government in which entities such as states and local governments share power with the national government. Federalism is a political system of government where there is division of power among the three tiers of government (federal, State and the local government.
Reason for the Adoption of Federalism in Nigeria
- Federalism was adopted in Nigeria because of her multi- ethnicity; therefore only federal system could bring about peaceful co-existence among the different ethnic group.
- To protect and preserve the local independence of every ethnic group in Nigeria.
- For the purpose of developing all parts of Nigeria.
- It was adopted to form a common and stronger government so as to secure the sovereignty of the country.
- It was also adopted to protect the interest of the minority
The federal government is composed of three distinct branches: legislative, executive, and judicial, whose powers are vested by the Nigerian constitution in the parliament, the President, and the federal courts, including the Supreme Court, respectively.
Problems of Federalism in Nigeria
- Problems associated with elections: Refusal of some political parties and representatives to accept election results usually lead to fighting and destruction of life and properties.
- Creation of states
- Revenue allocation: There has always been a problem on the formula or method of how the money is being shared.
- Threats of secession by some groups
- Disputes regarding boundary
The State Government
This is the second tier of the federal system of Government, it is headed by the state governor. The legislative arm of the state government is called the state house of assembly.
Functions of the state government
- Security of lives and properties of citizens
- Provision of basic amenities
- Creating enabling environment for businesses to thrive
- Establishment of educational institutions
- Establishment of health care facilities
- Generation of revenue
The Local Government
The local government is the third tier of the federal system of Government, it is headed by a Chairman. It is the government of the grass root where the majority lives.
Functions of the local government
- The local government provides primary health centres to the people at the grassroots.
- They are responsible for maintaining streets and roads under their care
- They help to maintain orderliness
- They help with the duty of registering and issuance of certificates for death, birth and marriages.
- Control and regulation of outdoor advertising and hoarding.
Responsibility of Citizens in a federal system of government
- Payment of taxes and rates:
- Voting during election
- Reporting criminals:
- Obedience to law and order
- Loyalty to the state.